France deployed the aircraft late last year to support strike and reconnaissance operations over Iraq. It acts as a forward air controller, a mission that it previously performed in Operation Harmattan in Libya (2011) and more recently in Operation Serval in Mali (2013).
Its role is to identify enemy targets and send back coordinates for coalition strike aircraft. And as we’ve seen with some of the videos released by the French Ministry of Defense, it often hangs around to capture video for battle damage assessments. 
The Atlantique 2 is operated by two different French Navy patrol squadrons, the 21F and 23F. This one reportedly belongs to the 23F based out of the Lorient-Lann-Bihoue civil-military airport in Brittany.
It’s currently unknown whether this is one of the lucky 15 planned for upgrades slated to start in 2016. Upgrades include a new radar, EO/IR turret, IFF and digital acoustic system. With updates, the French Navy expects to keep the aircraft in the air into the 2030s. 
France has 22 x ATL-2s in its current fleet.
Other ISR aircraft not typically observed at the airbase includes Australia’s E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C. It’s easily identified by the large Mesa radar located on the dorsal fin of the fuselage.
While often forward deployed at Minhad airbase, the imagery above captured the Wedgetail parked at Al Dhafra in April — not far from 6 x RAAF F/A-18 Super Hornets which have been at the airbase since October. 
Like France, Australia deployed the Wedgetail late last year to take part in Iraqi operations, its first combat debut. It most famously completed a 17h mission after air-to-air refueling, breaking a world record for a 737-700 airframe. 
Along with Boeing E-3 Sentries (flying from Al Dhafra & Cyprus), the Wedgetail directs the airspace for coalition aircraft, otherwise known as the battlespace management mission. Similar to the Atlantique 2, it conducts surveillance missions, searches for enemy targets and sends coordinates out to strike aircraft.
It’s operated by RAAF 2 squadron based out of Williamtown, New South Wales, and belongs to the same airbase the RAAF expects to house the maintenance facilities for the Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning II.
Australia has six of the aircraft in total all assigned to RAAF 2, a squadron stood up in 2000. Before acquiring the platform, the RAAF did not have an AEW&C capability which it sees an integral component in transforming the RAAF into a fifth-generation-enabled air force.
Prior to deployment in the UAE, the aircraft directed the airspace in search for Malaysia flight 370 which crashed off the Australian coast last year.
 France also carries out strikes with its flight of Rafale fighters also deployed at Al Dhafra
 Upgraded aircraft will be delivered to the French navy in a batch of three per year beginning in 2019.
 Combined with RAAF KC-30A and C-17s, the Wedgetail and Hornets complete the RAAF strike force.
 Australia’s KC-30A multi-role tanker has also been observed at Al Dhafra.